Characteristics of patients who had deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression from among 116,890 inpatients with major depressive disorder

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to evaluate the characteristics of patients and the pattern and rate of use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) in the United States.

METHODS: Data from the 2012-2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) included 116,890 patients. Patient variables included age, gender, race, median household income, insurance, primary diagnosis, primary procedure, length of stay, and total cost. Hospital variables included ownership, location, teaching status, bed size, and geographic region.

RESULTS: Patients who received DBS for MDD were primarily high-income White females with private insurance. The mean age was 49.1 years (SD 7.85). The length of inpatient stay was 1 to 1.6 days. Total cost was highest in the West and lowest in the Northeast. Deep brain stimulation was mostly used by private nonprofit urban teaching hospitals in the South region of the United States.

CONCLUSIONS: Deep brain stimulation was used in .03% of the total inpatient population with a primary diagnosis of MDD. If efficacy is established in definitive trials, DBS could fill a need for patients with treatment-resistant depression who do not respond to standard therapeutics or electroconvulsive therapy.

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