BACKGROUND: One goal of the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) is to develop evidence-based and best practice educational programs and recommendations. Our group conducted a comprehensive literature review to provide evidence-based recommendations for treating metabolic comorbidity in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD).
METHODS: We searched PubMed for all English-language articles published January 1966 to November 2010 using BD and MDD cross-referenced with metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. That search was augmented by a review of articles reporting outcomes of an intervention targeting components of metabolic syndrome in individuals with MDD or BD.
RESULTS: Consensus exists for the recommendation that individuals with MDD and BD should be routinely screened for risk factors that increase risk for metabolic syndrome. For excess weight, the best-studied pharmacologic approaches are metformin and topiramate, with emerging evidence for liraglutide and modafinil. For binge eating disorder, the best evidence in mood disorders was for cognitive behavioral therapy as well as topiramate, zonisamide, and in select cases selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. For dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, evidence supports cognitive-behavioral interventions and anti-diabetic, antilipidemic, and antihypertensive treatments.
CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive care of individuals with mood disorders should include routine evaluation of the risk and presence of metabolic syndrome and its components. Systematic evaluation of preventative and targeted treatments of metabolic syndrome in mood disorder populations is insufficient.