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Diabetes prevalence estimates in schizophrenia and risk factor assessment

Tami Argo, PharmD, MS, BCPP

Iowa City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, IA, USA

Ryan Carnahan, PharmD, MS, BCPP

University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA

Mitchell Barnett, PharmD, MS

Touro University-California, Vallejo, CA, USA

Timothy L. Holman, MA

University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA

Paul J. Perry, PhD, BCPP, FCCP

Touro University-California College of Pharmacy, Vallejo, CA, USA, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA

BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotics have been indirectly associated with the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of T2DM and to examine the risk factors associated with T2DM among outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The study also sought to determine which risk factors are of particular screening importance in monitoring the metabolic status of these patients.

METHODS: This study included 202 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Data on a number of known and hypothesized risk factors for T2DM were collected.

RESULTS: Risk factors for T2DM identified by bivariate analyses in this sample included older age, waist-to-hip ratio >1.0, sedentary lifestyle, number of hours worked per week, hyperlipidemia, previous screening for T2DM, higher random blood glucose, and number of years on atypical antipsychotics risperidone or olanzapine. However, further scrutiny using multiple logistic regression identified only sedentary lifestyle, waist-to-hip ratio ≥1.0, and a diagnosis of hyperlipidemia as significant risk factors in these patients. Similar to other studies, there was an 11.5% (22/192) lifetime prevalence rate of diabetes among this population.

CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors traditionally associated with T2DM, as well as waist-to-hip ratio, are the factors most strongly associated with increased risk of diabetes in patients with schizophrenia.

KEYWORDS: antipsychotic, diabetes, schizophrenia, prevalence, risk factors


CORRESPONDENCE: Paul J. Perry, PhD, BCPP, FCCP, Touro University-California College of Pharmacy, 1310 Johnson Lane, Mare Island, Vallejo, CA 94592 USA E-MAIL:
Annals of Clinical Psychiatry ©2011 Quadrant HealthCom Inc.

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