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Obstructive sleep apnea and risk for late-life depression

Siddharth Bajpai, MD

Department of Psychiatry, Department of Neurology, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

Kyoung Bin Im, MD

Department of Psychiatry, Department of Neurology, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

Mark Eric Dyken, MD

Department of Neurology, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

Simrit K. Sodhi, BS

Department of Psychiatry, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

Jess G. Fiedorowicz, MD, PhD

Department of Psychiatry, Department of Internal Medicine, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by repetitive pharyngeal collapse. Because of the association between OSA, ischemia, and late-life depression, we hypothesized that older patients with OSA would have a higher prevalence of depression relative to their younger counterparts.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients evaluated at the Sleep Disorders Center (SDC) at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. A total of 617 patients age ≥18 seen at SDC for diagnostic and therapeutic sleep studies were identified. Patients with a chart diagnosis of depressive disorder or treatment with antidepressants were identified as having a depressive disorder. Patients with an Apnea/Hypopnea Index ≥5 were identified as having OSA.

RESULTS: No evidence of an escalating prevalence of depression with age was found in patients with OSA relative to those without the disorder. Prevalence of depression was similar in the OSA and the nonapnea groups (40.9% vs 40.3%, respectively; c2 = 0.02; df = 1; P = .89). Individuals with OSA had a significantly higher body mass index and greater number of chart diagnoses of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease compared with the nonapnea group.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of depression among individuals with OSA does not appear to be moderated by age. Similarly high rates of depression were observed across the population of individuals referred for sleep studies, whether or not they were diagnosed with OSA.

KEYWORDS: obstructive sleep apnea, late-life depression, white matter lesions, sleep disorders, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease

ANNALS OF CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY 2014;26(2):e1-e8

CORRESPONDENCE: Jess G. Fiedorowicz, MD, PhD, 200 Hawkins Drive W278GH, Iowa City, IA 52242-1057 USA E-MAIL: jess-fiedorowicz@uiowa.edu
Annals of Clinical Psychiatry ©2014 Quadrant HealthCom Inc.

 
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