Modifiable risk factors for depressed mood among farmers
Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Springfield, IL, USA
Una Mano per la Vita, Clinics and Association of Families and their Doctors, San Giovanni La Punta, Italy, Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago, Chile
University of Iowa College of Public Health, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iowa City, IA, USA
University of Iowa College of Public Health, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iowa City, IA, USARisto H. Rautiainen, PhD
University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Public Health, Department of Environmental, Agricultural and Occupational Health, Omaha, NE, USA
BACKGROUND: Risk for depression among farmers is not fully understood. DSM-IV considers sadness or depressed mood a critical symptom of depression. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for depressed mood among farmers using a longitudinal study design.
METHODS: Participants were principal farm operators in the Iowa Certified Safe Farm study. We identified risk factors for depressed mood by calculating relative risks (RR) using the generalized estimating equations method.
RESULTS: In the multivariate model, pesticide exposure (RR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.53), having an additional job off the farm (RR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.62), stress (RR = 3.09; 95% CI: 2.55 to 3.75), and previous injury (RR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.89) prospectively increased the risk of depressed mood.
CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with earlier non-longitudinal studies, the results of this study suggest that reducing pesticide exposure, stress, and injury may reduce the risk of depression in the farm setting.
KEYWORDS: depression, pesticides, orthophosphates, farming, stress, serotonin
ANNALS OF CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY 2013;25(2):83-90CORRESPONDENCE: Sergio Paradiso, MD, PhD Una Mano per la Vita Clinics and Association of Families and their Doctors via Cristoforo Colombo n. 13/ E 95030 San Giovanni La Punta CT Italy E-MAIL: email@example.comAnnals of Clinical Psychiatry ©2013 Frontline Medical Communications Inc.